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Supporting unaccompanied children and youth in Egypt
- Founded in 1979, St Andrew’s Refugee Services (StARS) is a refugee service provider in central Cairo that works to enhance the quality of life for refugees and vulnerable migrants through four main programs: education, legal, community outreach, and psychosocial services. StARS’ Unaccompanied Youth Bridging Program (UYBP) provides a hybrid education and psychosocial program for unaccompanied children and youth (UCY) in Cairo. These are refugee and migrant children and teenagers in Egypt without their parents. Children and youth in the program take Arabic, Math, Computer and English classes; and participate in psychosocial group activities aimed at increasing their life skills, their self-reliance and their self-protection capacity.
Work permit program for refugees in Jordan
- In January 2016 at Davos, the forum for global business, Queen Rania of Jordan acclimatised CEOs to the idea that corporate social responsibility to refugees did not mean diverting some profits into sending blankets; rather, it meant putting their core skills to use by integrating them into global supply chains. In the context of emerging business interest in solutions to the refugee crisis, a range of manufacturing company CEOs began to take notice. The formal launch of the pilot project came as part of the London conference on Syrian refugees on 4 February 2016. The basic deal on the table – called the Jordan Compact – was that Jordan would receive around $2bn (£1.6bn) in assistance and investment. In exchange, it would offer up to 200,000 work permits to Syrians. One of the main vehicles for this would be through a series of five new Special Economic Zones, in which refugees would be employed alongside Jordanian nationals, partly building upon existing development areas.
Assistance to seriously ill migrants in Mexico and Honduras
- The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), in collaboration with the Mexican and Central American National Societies, provides free assistance to migrants (in transit or returned) who have suffered major illnesses or injuries during their journey (including amputations, spinal cord injuries, etc.). They offer the following services: (1) donation of prostheses (before physical rehabilitation), (2) osteosynthesis materials, wheelchairs and crutches, (3) ambulance transfers, (4) referral to rehabilitation and medical care centres in Mexico and Central America, and (5) reestablishment of family links when necessary.
In Honduras, the National Committee to Support Returning Migrants with Disabilities (CONAMIREDIS), with technical and financial support from the ICRC, works directly with returning migrants who have disabilities. It offers: (1) psychological assistance through support groups of people with similar experiences; (2) access to training and vocational education (e.g., how to design a business plan); and (3) seed capital to implement business plans through an agreement with the Chamber of Commerce. (Approximately 40 businesses plans were financed in 2015.) In addition, CONAMIREDIS performs conferences and lectures in schools and other institutions to share its experience of migration and raise awareness of the risks associated with trying to enter the United States irregularly. The ICRC supports CONAMIREDIS with both technical and financial support.
Ensuring migrant children have the same care as citizen children in Sweden
- Swedish law provides that all children should receive the same level of care, irrespective of whether they are citizens or foreigners. UMC are usually accommodated in a children’s home (‘home for care or residence’ or ‘HVB housing’ which may be special housing established specifically for the reception of UMC) or a foster family (foster families are drawn from the same pool of families that care for Swedish children in need). While their applications are being processed, UMC asylum seekers are treated as “asylum applicants” and provided access to a certain number of rights, such as the rights to accommodation, schooling, health and dental care. As with adult asylum applicants, they are provided with the LMA identity card. Pursuant to the Act on Guardians Ad Litem for Unaccompanied children, a temporary legal representative or guardian ad litem will be appointed by the Chief Guardian to represent and assist the UMC during the asylum procedure, and to generally look after the child’s interests during this period. The role of the guardian ad litem is to act both as a legal guardian and custodian of the child, with the right and duty to decide all matters relating to the UMC’s affairs, however, this does not extend to daily care and supervision of the child
Support for asylum seekers in the United States
- United States of America
- Freedom House in Detroit Michigan “is unique in its comprehensive approach to assisting those who seek asylum. We provide housing, food, clothing, legal aid, medical care, mental health care, ESL, education, job training, recreation, transportation and transitional housing after asylum is gained.”
Art advocacy by refugees in Eastern Africa
- The Jesuit Refugee Services in Eastern Africa has opened an art studio for Eritrean refugees living in Ethiopia, as a part of their Artists in Motion campaign. Works of refugee artists between ages of 13 and 45 years from this studio are featured at multicultural festivals in Nairobi, Kenya and regional conferences such as Caritas-sponsored recent conference on human trafficking in Nigeria. In 2017, JRSEA plans to take this campaign to various exhibitions and universities in the United States of America.
Vocation training for refugees in Uganda
- The Norwegian Refugee Council in collaboration with EU and local government officials opened a Nyumanzi vocational training centre for refugees in Uganda. Vocation training courses included in areas like Bakery and Agriculture, for several South Sudanese refugees who had recently migrated to Uganda. “We are working on how refugees can link up with the markets in the surrounding areas. We have established relations between graduates and the existing financial institutions in this area. Graduates are given start-up cash, tools for their trade, and they benefit from a six-month follow up,” said Hosana Adisu, course area manager at Nyumanzi.
Grants to Support Unacompanied Migrant Children in the UK
- United Kingdom
- Kent County Council are reporting that they are overwhelmed by numbers of unaccompanied children in their care. We have been training foster carers throughout Kent in collaboration with Kent County Council. We have given out 12 Eat, Sleep, Learn, Play crisis grants in Kent which provide material items for the home in order to support children’s learning and development and reduce the impacts of material deprivation.
Business-led refugee resettlement program
- In September 2015, the Australian Government announced an additional one-off allocation of 12,000 resettlement places for Syrian and Iraqi refugees.125 This announcement inspired the Friendly Nation Initiative, a business-led project which seeks to improve employment pathways for refugees resettled from overseas. The Initiative was developed by Tony Shepherd, former President of the Business Council of Australia, and Carla Wilshire, CEO of the Migration Council Australia. The Friendly Nation Initiative aims to help Syrian refugees and employment as quickly as possible after arrival. Businesses can support the Initiative in a range of ways: as ‘Corporate Mates’, through raising funds, hosting cultural awareness seminars and participating in corporate volunteering and mentoring programs; as ‘Corporate Mentors’, through offering industry mentoring, retraining or assistance with skills recognition, and donating services such as banking support and business planning; or as ‘Corporate Champions’, through providing employment training programs, sponsoring projects and programs to assist refugees to settle and develop skills, and recruiting other businesses to participate in the Initiative. The Friendly Nation Initiative has been met with an enthusiastic response from Australian businesses and industry groups. It has been supported by the Business Council of Australia, the Australian Industry Group and the Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, as well as major companies such as Wesfarmers, Woolworths and Harvey Norman.
Education support for refugees
- United Arab Emirates
- United States of America
- Participating universities commit to granting full or partial fee waivers to Syrian students for at least one academic year.139 The Platform also administers an Emergency Fund which seeks donations and grants to support the scholarship program and provide additional assistance to students, such as language courses.140 Over 100 Syrian students have benefitted from the scholarship program to date. Most are studying in Portugal, but scholarships have also been offered in a range of other countries including Lebanon, the United States, France, Germany, Canada, Iraq, Argentina, Egypt and the United Arab Emirates.141 The Platform is aiming to provide 700 new scholarships for Syrian students during the 2015-16 academic year.142
Employment initatives for asylum seekers in Germany
- In response to record numbers of people arriving in Germany to seek asylum, several German businesses have implemented initiatives to assist new arrivals to find employment. Automotive corporation Daimler is offering ‘bridge internships’ for refugees and people seeking asylum. The 14-week program consists of a practical component in production operations and German language classes, where participants also practice job interviews and prepare job applications. Daimler reports that ‘nearly all 40 participants of the rst program will receive offers from temporary employment agencies for continued employment in [the] industry or in a particular trade or craft or will get a vocational training opportunity at Daimler’. Telecommunications company Deutsche Telekom offers three-month paid internships to refugees and people seeking asylum, in areas such as IT, project management, customer service, marketing and human resources. Participants are assigned a ‘buddy’ to support them throughout the internship. Steel manufacturer ThyssenKrupp is offering 150 apprenticeships, 230 internships and additional positions for skilled workers and graduates to refugees throughout Germany. The company has also called on the German Government to provide language courses for refugees to support their transition to the workplace. Engineering conglomerate Siemens has committed to a long term program for supporting refugees to nd employment in Germany, offering a paid internship program for people who are still in the process of seeking asylum and establishing special classes designed to ‘lay the foundation for a successful career start’, with a particular focus on German language skills and vocational preparation. Other businesses offering internships and other forms of employment support to refugees in Germany include the chemical giant BASF, auto parts and tyre supplier Continental, software company SAP SE and railway operator Deutsche Bahn.
Holistic care for unaccompanied refugee children in Thailand
- The Bangkok Child Protection program is implemented through a partnership between UNHCR and the Jesuit Refugee Service (JRS) in Thailand. Initially established as a three-month pilot project in 2014, the program aims to respond to the needs of unaccompanied, separated and other vulnerable children residing in Bangkok through providing best interests assessments, referrals to service providers and emergency assistance. There are currently 162 children receiving support through the program. Once a child is registered with the program, a caseworker conducts best interests assessments (based on an interview and home visit) to determine the child’s basic needs and identify protection gaps. Relevant support is then provided through referrals for financial, medical, educational or legal support. The program also organises recreational, educational, and psychosocial activities, as well as opportunities to participate in training courses and workshops. The Bangkok Child Protection program operates in a challenging legal, social and cultural context. Thailand is not party to the Refugee Convention and lacks a legal and administrative framework for refugee protection. The unstable political environment, the complexity of case management for vulnerable and often traumatised children, and the lack of ongoing support options for young people who have turned 18 pose further challenges. Nonetheless, the support provided through the program plays an important role in assisting asylum seeker and refugee children to survive and meet their basic needs in this difficult context.
Support for refugees in India
- The Refugee Community Development Project was a community-led project based in New Delhi, India. Established in 2012, the Project was developed and managed by the Afghan and Somali refugee communities in New Delhi. The Project aimed to be ‘by refugees, for refugees’, utilising their skills and rst-hand knowledge to identify needs and service delivery gaps, and develop responsive solutions that were tailored to community needs. A key focus area for the Project was the empowerment of refugee women at risk, their families and other vulnerable groups. Seven women’s groups were established across four areas of New Delhi, providing a space for women to develop social and community connections and take part in exercise, recreational activities and skill development (such as cooking and tailoring classes). The groups provided important psychosocial support to women, with participants reporting that they felt less isolated, did not visit the doctor as often and felt more con dent to voice their opinions due to greater awareness of their rights. Education was another key focus of the Project, with 28 classes provided each week for hundreds of refugee women, youth and children. Classes were developed based on education priorities identified by the community, including adult literacy classes for women and language, culture and history classes for children. Literacy classes supported women to negotiate daily life in New Delhi (such as filling out forms at their children’s schools and speaking with doctors), while classes for young people aimed to foster a sense of belonging and community connectedness. Additional support was provided through a volunteer program, including outreach services (such as interpreting at hospitals in a medical emergency), information for newly-arrived refugees and referrals to other services. The program also provided volunteers with an opportunity to develop skills and gain work experience, enhancing future employment opportunities. The Project received funding from the Australian Government through the Displaced Persons Program, and was managed with the support of the Centre for Refugee Research at the University of New South Wales and Bosco New Delhi (an implementing partner of UNHCR). The program has now been discontinued due to lack of funding.
Supported work experience
- The National Australia Bank’s African-Australian Inclusion Program provides six months of paid, supported work experience to skilled African Australians (many of whom are from refugee backgrounds). The program was developed in response to feedback from the African-Australian community indicating that ‘lack of local experience in the Australian business sector was a significant barrier to employment’. Participants in the program receive an entry-level salary, receive cultural training and mentoring, are assigned a coach to assist them with career goals and obtain a professional reference at the end of their placement. More than 180 people have participated in the program since 2009, 86 per cent of whom have subsequently found work in their chosen eld in NAB or elsewhere.
Supporting migrant education
- The Australia Awards Scholarships program, administered by the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, provides opportunities for people from developing countries to undertake study at participating universities and TAFEs. It aims to assist these students to ‘develop skills and knowledge...to drive change and contribute to the development outcomes of their own country.’ The Award covers a range of costs, including tuition fees, return airfares, a contribution to living expenses, health cover and pre-course English training.136 Participating countries include several of the major refugee-producing countries in the Asia–Pacific region (namely Myanmar (Burma), Pakistan and Sri Lanka),137 suggesting that there may already be potential to extend similar opportunities to people in humanitarian need. However, to offer an effective solution for refugees, some aspects of the program may need to be adjusted. For example, the requirement that scholarship recipients leave Australia for a minimum of two years after completing their scholarship would need to be waived in order to prevent refoulement.
Residence permits for people unable to depart the Netherlands
- Migrants whose applications have been rejected, including irregular, undocumented or unreturnable people, can be granted a residence permit for a limited time if they are unable to leave the Netherlands through no fault of their own. The permit is granted on condition that the migrant leaves the Netherlands if this becomes possible at a later stage. After 3 years, the holder of the no-fault residence permit becomes eligible for another residence permit for limited time. The applicant has to meet four stringent cumulative requirements: (i) they must prove that they have tried independently to leave the Netherlands (ii) the International Organisation for Migration (IOM) must have indicated that it is not able to assist them in leaving due to lack of travel documents (iii) Dedication by the Return and Departure Services to obtain the necessary travel documents must have been unsuccessful (iv) the applicant must show that he or she cannot leave the Netherlands through no fault of his or her own.
Alternative to detention pilot project in Japan
- In Japan, following a Memorandum of Understanding signed between the Immigration Bureau, the Forum for Refugees Japan (FRJ) and the Japan Federation of Bar Associations (JFBA), a new framework has been established for the improvement of the asylum system, including the issue of detention of asylum-seekers. As part of an alternative to detention pilot project, identified cases are referred by the Immigration Bureau to the FRJ. Eligible persons include those who could possibly be granted either landing permission for temporary refuge, provisional release, or permission for provisional stay. FRJ, after consideration of the cases, identifies accommodation and appoints a case manager. FRJ provides assistance such as psychological counselling and secures access to education and medical care; JFBA provides free legal assistance to asylum-seekers.
Medical and legal support in the community for unaccompanied minors in the United States
- United States of America
- Terra Firma—the first medical-legal partnership specifically designed to meet the needs of released immigrant children—provides coordinated medical-legal services to children in the South Bronx. Integrated medical, legal, and mental health supports offer an innovative model for serving thousands of vulnerable unaccompanied immigrant children nationwide. At Terra Firma, a supportive community environment has been created through adolescent sup- port groups, family-styled meals served at the health center, as well as a weekend soccer league.
Support for asylum seekers in New Zealand
- New Zealand
- The Asylum Seeker Support Trust works to create a safe and supportive environment for all asylum seekers. We provide access to information, services and resources so asylum seekers may effectively pursue the determination of their refugee status, and thrive in their new home. We have three committed part-time staff, a hostel that houses up to 14 people, and three transitional homes for families. We are proud to offer a measure of safety and stability where once there was none. Asylum seekers waiting for their refugee status to be processed often have little or no money. From a limited budget we provide food parcels and other necessities to tide them over, English language lessons, and medical attention when necessary. A registered social worker makes a needs assessment to determine if any other help is needed, including bus fares and access to government services, referral for medical attention, etc. Once asylum seekers gain refugee status, we continue to support them in their resettlement. As well as practical support, we help asylum seekers negotiate with authorities, advise them on ways to manage a new culture, and put them in touch with other community and refugee organisations. We're part of the Refugee Sector Strategic Alliance made up of 19 organisations, and a member of the Asia and Pacific Rights Network, seeking durable protection for refugees in the Asia-Pacific region. We regularly make submissions on law changes, and provide ongoing information on the plight of asylum seekers to the Government and to the public. We advocate vigorously for better, kinder treatment of people in dire need of asylum.
Support for asylum seekers in Spain
- In Spain, asylum seekers who enter the refugee determination process can be
housed in an open reception centre if they cannot afford private accommodation.150
These centres are operated by the government or by non-government organisations.
The total reception capacity in Spain is about 850 places, with priority given to vulnerable individuals.
Asylum seekers cannot choose which area within Spain they will be located.
The centres are responsible for the reception, promotion and integration of asylum seekers and refugees.151
Residents are free to come and go from the centres as they like. As an example, one centre provides bedrooms shared by 3-4 single adults, while families have their own
room with a small bathroom attached. There are catered meals in a dining hall, public lounge areas, library, shared computer and Internet access and a shared laundry.
Residents receive $50 per month cash allowance for their own use including public
transport. Twice a year residents are given money for clothes.
Residents are assigned a social worker who provides information and advice on their situation, works to develop an individual pathway
and assists them in accessing education, health care and other social systems
of Spain. All residents are expected to attend Spanish language classes, cultural
orientation, and employment preparation programs.
Recreational activities such as sports, visits to the local library, exhibitions and
movies are supported by an activities offcer. Psychological services and specialised
services including legal aid are available for eligible residents. The centres
also undertake advocacy activities in the local Spanish community.152 Residents are
issued a card that identifes them as asylum seekers and facilitates their access to medical care.
Asylum seekers can be housed in reception centres for six months. If they are still awaiting a decision on
their refugee application at that time, they are supported to find independent housing and employment.
At this point, they are given the right to work. Vulnerable individuals and families may
apply to extend their stay in the centre for an extra six months if needed. The program has been praised
by UNHCR for its high standards.
Work permit program for refugees in Jordan
- The international deal to which the government of Jordan agreed at the London conference in February 2016 included a commitment by the Jordanian government to provide work permits for refugees in return for new jobs being created in the zones: hence the vital role that international business can play in bringing dignity to refugees’ lives. The government of Jordan committed to 50,000 work permits in the following 12 months. It is on track to achieve this target, with more than 30,000 permits so far allocated, but the critical question is whether international business will generate enough jobs.
Foster families for unaccompanied migrant children in the United Kingdom
- United Kingdom
- In 2011, 16 representatives from 10 EU Member States reviewed and evaluated each country’s approach to caring for unaccompanied minor asylum seekers. The top-ranked practice with 400 points (79 per cent of all possible points) is the placement of UAMAS under 16 years of age with foster families, as practised in the UK. It is significant that this practice, ranked highly positively by both interviewed UAMAS and experts, has been implemented for several decades now and is well institutionalized, is state-regulated and funded (foster families receive contributions to cover their expenses associated with fostering), and is subject to rigorous rules and monitoring. Comparisons were made between the UK practice and similar practices in other EU Member States such as the Netherlands or France, where children are also placed with foster families. Compared with the UK, placement of children in other countries does not take place on such a wide scale, foster families do not receive state support, and only younger children benefit (in the Netherlands children up to 13 years of age and children who are considered vulnerable). Several other countries, including Belgium, Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy, Slovakia and Slovenia, mentioned that finding foster families is difficult. Societies are not as ethnically diverse as in the UK and families are often reluctant to receive people from different ethnic backgrounds. In addition, Central European countries have a strong tradition of institutionalized care and finding foster families is not a priority for state institutions responsible for childcare.
Support for people released from immigration detention in Malta
- Asylum seekers who have been detained for more than 12 months are moved to non-secure reception centres that fall under the responsibility of the Ministry of Social Affairs and the Family. Malta also operates a number of non-secure reception centres that provide accommodation for vulnerable migrants and those granted refugee or humanitarian protection. According to Micallef, these centres act as a transit for migrants who have come from official detention, and who are free to move into society. The centres are reportedly run by either the Ministry for the Family and Social Solidarity or civil society organisations
Tailored support for trafficking survivors in Egypt
- Through its ongoing counter-trafficking projects, IOM also offers tailored assistance to migrant and Egyptian trafficked persons in Egypt. More specifically, based on individual needs, IOM offers its beneficiaries secure temporary accommodation, health care and mental health care, legal aid and livelihood assistance. With a view to strengthening the overall sphere of protection in Egypt, IOM also worked in partnership with the National Council for Childhood and Motherhood and the Ministry of Health to establish Egypt’s first shelter for victims of trafficking. IOM and its partners have also set up a medical recovery unit, which to date has served over 100 Egyptian and foreign victims of trafficking.
Access to education for children seeking asylum in Spain
- Children living in an asylum seeker reception centre have access to the public education system. Social workers within the centre arrange for children to attend the local public school.
Access to Education
- Children living in an asylum seeker reception centre have access to the public education system. Social workers within the centre arrange for children to attend the local public school.
Access to education
- As minors, the residents of the UAM shelter are required by Hungarian law to attend school until they are 18 years old. Initially, the young people attend Hungarian classes provided on site. There have been challenges in getting these young people into the local school system. However, in partnership with a small NGO, the shelter has now developed a relationship with one of the local schools to create a class for UAMs with a dedicated teacher. The class focuses on Hungarian and maths; however, individual learning plans are developed to have these students work through the standardised exams used to graduate students through the first 8 years of school in Hungary. It is only after passing these exams that students can enrol in secondary school in Hungary. At the end of the 2008 school year, the first eight UAM students graduated in this way, allowing them to enter a secondary education scheme for refugees in Budapest.
Open reception centres and work rights for asylum seekers in Romania
- Asylum seekers are entitled, but are not required, to reside in non-secure “reception and accommodation centres” run by the RIO for the duration of the procedure Law 122/2006 Asylum Law: Art. 17(1)(k)). There are six open reception centers: Bucharest, Timisoara, Somcuta, Radauti, Galati and Giurgiu. At the centers, persons are provided with access to health care, subsistence package of approx USD 30 per month (critized by UNHCR as being inadequate); Legal employment of asylum-seekers is only possible one year after the asylum application has been submitted, but significant practical challenges to accessing employment
Supporting recovery for trafficking survivors in the Netherlands
- In the Netherlands, under the “B9 procedure”, (presumed) victims of trafficking are granted a reflection period of three months “at the slightest indication” that he or she might be a victim of trafficking. The reflection period is meant to allow the (presumed) victim to start recovering and to make an informed decision about cooperation with the authorities. During the reflection period the (presumed) victim has access to safe housing, psychological, medical, material and legal aid. It is the responsibility of the police to inform the victim about the B9 procedure. If, after this period, the victim decides to cooperate in the prosecution of the traffickers, he or she is granted a temporary residence permit for the duration of the criminal proceedings until the end of the trial, to be renewed each year. The statement of the victim with the police is automatically considered to be an application for such temporary residence permit, on which the IND has to decide within 24 hours. The temporary residence permit provides access to the labour market and to social welfare, legal, medical and psychological assistance on the same footing as Dutch nationals.
Support for migrants in the United States
- United States of America
- Shelter for irregular migrants. Provides shared rooms, meals, clothing. Does not take any responsibility for enforcement. Gentleman’s agreement with authorities that they will not raid any place which is providing irregular migrants with their basic needs
Support for people in judicial proceedings in the United States
- United States of America
- NGOs in USA providing for basic needs of those in judicial proceedings. “VIVE, Freedom House and the Boston-based Refugee Immigration Ministry also provide shelter, food, English classes and health services to the immigrants in judicial proceedings. ”
Reception centre for asylum seekers in Mexico
- The Albergue Belen is a semi-open reception centre known as Casas del Migrante in Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico. The centre aims at creating an atmosphere where migrants are treated with dignity and respect. The Albergue Belen provides reception services such as, inter alia, temporary accommodation, food, non-food items, psycho-social services to migrants travelling through or arriving in Tapachula. Some specific arrangements are made for asylums seekers as per an agreement with UNHCR Mexico and in 2008 the centre opened a specific area for victims of trafficking. The services provided at the centre are crucial in a location like Tapachula, known to be a problematic area of human smuggling and organized crime.” Note: Some mixed views on this by NGOs. Ref: UNHCR (2009). 10-Point Plan expert round table no. 2: "Different people, different needs"
Open reception centres in Bulgaria
- Bulgaria operates open centres where residents must request permission for any absence of longer than 24 hours. In-country applicants must register at the centres even if not residing there, and asylum seekers who do not require State support may live independently. The centres are therefore intended more as a way of supporting destitute applicants than of ensuring compliance. Thus, in the decade between 1993 and 30 December 2003, 41.5 per cent of asylum seekers in Bulgaria absconded and had their claims discontinued, a fact that can arguably be attributed to it being largely a ‘transit’ State during that period (with recognised refugees also disappearing west due to limited integration prospects). Field and Edwards (2006) p. 31
Reception centres for asylum seekers in Greece
- In Greece, there are open reception centres and several hostels run by the Red Cross (three centres), Médicins du Monde, and other agencies (ELINAS, Social Solidarity, Voluntary Work of Athens). If an asylum seeker is assigned to the centre in Lavrio, he or she must obtain permission for any absences, and if he or she leaves without permission, his or her asylum claim will be suspended. There are some problems with dispersal and assignment to the more remote centres, with people choosing instead to move to Athens despite their destitution. In 2002, when there were 5,600 new asylum applications in Greece, 697 applicants (12 per cent) failed to appear for their interviews at either the first or second instance and, as a consequence, had their cases suspended then later closed. Similar percentages have occurred over the past several years. Despite the fact that Greece is a major country of transit, this is a relatively low rate of non-appearance and suggests that provision of adequate reception assistance, even in a very open system, can effectively raise the rate of procedural compliance
Shelter for women and children in Canada
- FCJ Refugee Centre provides housing for women and children without a program of supervision. FCJ has a 99.9 per cent compliance rate. When detainees are homeless but required to provide an address upon release, they may be placed in a temporary shelter program, Matthew House which does not supervise residents or impose curfews. Over five years 300 immigrants in proceedings were housed there and three absconded. A similar homeless shelter, the Sojourn House, took in 3600 over six years with two absconding.
Supporting asylum seekers in Nepal
- Since mid-2003, Tibetans seeking asylum in Nepal, arrested for unauthorised entry, are directly released from police custody upon UNHCR’s intervention, without having to go through the Department of Immigration and therefore without being fined or charged visa fees. Such asylum seekers are temporarily accommodated at the Tibetan Refugee Reception Centre, near Swayambunath on the outskirts of Kathmandu, while they are processed. Field and Edwards (2006) p. 35