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  • Supporting and empowering unaccompanied child asylum seekers in the United Kingdom
  • United Kingdom
  • Scottish Guardianship Services - The Service works to help young asylum seekers to feel supported and empowered throughout their journey whilst their claim is assessed and their status determined. It enables them to access the assistance they need when they need it and help them to make informed decisions about their future. On referral, the young person is appointed a guardian, who will represent a point of contact and continuity through their progress through the asylum and immigration system. The guardian is there to make the young person aware of their rights, explain aspects of the asylum, trafficking and welfare system to them, introduce them to social opportunities and to begin to integrate them into community life. Local authorities are obliged by the Children (Scotland) Act 1995 to provide UASCs with accommodation under section 25, which makes them formally looked after. For the purposes of Section 25, children are defined as up until 18 years of age, the same as the definition of children in immigration legislation. The Scottish Refugee Council together with Glasgow City Council and partners including COSLA, the Scottish Government and UKBA have taken practical steps to help ensure that best practice is followed when young people need to be age assessed from the outset and developed practice guidance, which is a first in the UK. This is aimed at helping social workers in Scotland to conduct the difficult task of accurately assessing the age of young asylum seekers.
  • Practice
  • Case Management
  • Case management and support
  • Asylum seekers
  • Unaccompanied and Separated Children
  • Trainee program for migrants in South Korea
  • Korea
  • Republic of (South Korea)
  • Until 2003, South Korea had no official provisions for the entry of temporary low-skilled foreign labor. Instead South Korea used its industrial trainee scheme which was originally intended to upgrade the skills of foreign workers employed abroad by overseas South Korean firms. In 2002, the government increased the number of industrial trainees under the foreign trainee program by 20,000, to 145,000. ... The presence of unauthorized foreign workers eventually caught the government's attention, and, in June 2002, it recognized the need to give temporary legal status to low-skilled foreign laborers for the first time. This initiative, known as the Employment Management System, was limited to temporary foreign workers in the service sector with Korean ancestors (mainly Chinese Koreans). Due to the program’s limited scope (in 2002, it issued 156 worker visas), it did not significantly decrease the number of unauthorized workers. In July 2003, the government introduced the Employment Permit System (EPS), a guestworker scheme, and the following year the Employment Management System and the EPS were made to operate side-by-side, with the government examining the number of workers in one when considering how many to admit into the other. ... When EPS was introduced, it gave many unauthorized foreign workers the opportunity to apply for a permit, depending on how long they had been in the country illegally. At the same time, unauthorized migrants who did not qualify for a permit were given a chance to leave the country without paying any fines. Foreign workers who had been in Korea for less than three years as of March 31, 2003 were able to stay for an additional two years at most. Those present for three to four years could leave Korea with an advance approval certificate to re-enter, and if they did so within three months of their departure, they could work for a maximum of five years, including their illegal stay in Korea. Those illegally present in Korea for more than four years were required to leave Korea or face deportation. This amnesty boosted the authorized foreign worker population by 57.2 percent—from 320,558 at the end of 2002 to 504,038 one year later.
  • Policy
  • Case Management
  • Case resolution
  • Undocumented or irregular migrants
  • All
  • Voluntary return process in Finland
  • Finland
  • The Finnish Immigration Service and Helsinki Police have established a return transit center in the city of Vantaa, in the vicinity of the Helsinki-Vantaa airport. The center was established in February 2016 due to the high number of Iraqi asylum seekers willing to return home. These asylum seekers have either withdrawn their application, or have received a negative decision and are returning voluntarily to Iraq. The return is organized by police on charter flights to Baghdad. The returnees stay in Vantaa only a few days before departure. A visit to Iraqi Embassy can be organized during the stay if necessary for acquiring a travel document. These returnees do not take part in the Assisted Voluntary Return (AVR) -programme and do not receive any reintegration support in cash or in kind. Finland organizes only voluntary returns to Iraq. Additionally, Finland has two detention units, where asylum seekers or irregular migrants awaiting forced removal may be placed, one in the capital Helsinki and one in Joutseno, near the eastern border. The capacity of the centre in Vantaa is 90-100 persons. The capacity of the detention centre in Helsinki is 40 and that of Joutseno is 30. The Iraqi nationals staying in the Vantaa return transit centre are all ex-asylum seekers returning voluntarily home. They are not detained and they are free to move in and out of the centre. They receive the same services and benefits as all asylum seekers in Finnish reception centres, e.g. food, accommodation, reception allowance and necessary health care. The two detention centres in Helsinki and Joutseno are closed units that operate under Finnish legislation regarding the detention of foreigners. The centres offer food, accommodation and necessary health care. The return centre in Vantaa, as well as the detention centres, are managed by the Finnish Immigration Service. There are special facilities for vulnerable cases or families with minor children at Joutseno detention centre.
  • Practice
  • Case Management
  • Case resolution
  • Returnees / Deportees
  • All
  • Reducing Statelessness in Malaysia
  • Malaysia
  • Many Indian Tamils were brought from India to Malaysia as indentured labourers during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, when both countries were under British rule. Generations later, thousands of their descendants remain in Malaysia but are not considered citizens and lack identity documents, and are therefore barred from accessing a range of services and opportunities. In July 2014, Malaysian NGO Development of Human Resources for Rural Areas (DHRRA), with technical support from UNHCR, embarked on a mapping and registration project to identify the extent and underlying causes of statelessness amongst Indian Tamil communities in west Malaysia. To reach communities living in remote areas, mobile registration teams travelled from town to town to locate and register people who did not have identity documents. Data on stateless applicants was captured using a mobile app and uploaded to a secure central database. Those registered by DHRRA then received counselling and assistance from community-based paralegals to apply to Malaysia’s National Registration Department (NRD) for national identity documents. Some applicants who could not resolve their case at the NRD level received pro bono legal support to acquire or confirm their nationality through the courts. As a result of these efforts, as well as community awareness-raising and government interventions pursued since July 2014, the number of stateless people identified within this community reduced from an estimated 40,000 people at the commencement of the project to 11,534 people by June 2016. As of July 2016, 12,234 people had been registered by DHRRA, 70 per cent of whom had submitted applications for documentation to the NRD.212 The Office of the Prime Minister of Malaysia has invited relevant government agencies and DHRRA to establish a working group on statelessness to accelerate the processing of these applications.213 To date, a total of 700 people have acquired Malaysian citizenship through DHRRA’s legal aid and counselling services in west Malaysia.
  • Practice
  • Case Management
  • Case resolution
  • Stateless
  • All
  • Transit
  • Exceptional regularisation for migrants in Morocco
  • Morocco
  • Following the recommendations by the National Human Rights Council (CNDH) on 9 September 2013 and their endorsement by King Mohammed VI, the Moroccan Government announced that it would elaborate and implement a new asylum and migration policy in compliance with the country’s international obligations. One important aspect of the country’s new approach to migration has been the implementation of a one-time exceptional regularization process for irregular migrants, which started on 1 January 2014 and lasted until the end of 2014. Among 27,332 migrants from 116 countries, who applied to the Ministry of Interior for regularization, 17,916 were accepted, the majority being Senegalese (6,600) followed by Syrians (5,250). However, non-governmental organizations raised concerns over the strict criteria and evidentiary requirements for regularization, the insufficient training of the staff of the Office for Foreigner taking the applications, and the lack of consistent information on the appeals procedure.
  • Practice
  • Case Management
  • Case resolution
  • Undocumented or irregular migrants
  • All
  • Transit
  • Options for people being deported from the Netherlands
  • Netherlands
  • In the Netherlands, a number of different alternatives to detention are available as part of the Government's returns policy., The Repatriation and Departure Service (DT&V) and the police when assessing the need for an alternative to detention consider the following factors: the prospects of return, the alien's willingness to actively work towards return, the risks of absconding and any new facts or developments in the alien's personal situation. The DT&V collaborates with local NGOs if the alien is willing to work on return with an NGO instead of the DT&V. Every year the DT&V accepts applications for grants for local initiatives dealing with return, such as case management, or other in-kind or cash assistance upon return. Different monitoring measures varying in intensity may be applied, sometimes in combination, for example, a duty to regularly report combined with DT&V assistance to prepare for return, the handing over of security deposit assessed against their financial situation, the deposit of documentation to the police or a measure of directed residence. Attention to vulnerable groups such as families, unaccompanied or separated children, elderly persons or persons with physical disabilities or medical or psychological problems is included in the returns policy. Pregnant women, for example, are entitled to postponement of return from six weeks before the due date until six weeks after the delivery, and they are provided with lawful residence and shelter and care during this period.
  • Policy
  • Case Management
  • Case resolution
  • Returnees / Deportees
  • All
  • Support for asylum seekers and migrants being deported from Sweden
  • Sweden
  • In Sweden, asylum-seekers are appointed two case workers after registration. A first case worker is responsible for the asylum process: he/she conducts interviews with the applicant in order to investigate his/her claim for asylum and to prepare the decision that will be taken by the executive officer of the Swedish Migration Agency. A second case worker supports the applicant in solving everyday life questions (daily allowance, special allowance, school, housing etc.), referring him/her to medical care, counselling or other services where required. Located at a Reception Unit near the residence of the applicant, he/she is also tasked to inform the applicant on decisions by the Swedish Migration Agency or Migration Courts. This second case worker also provides “motivational counselling” in order to prepare the asylum-seeker for all possible migration outcomes, and assesses the risk of absconding on a negative asylum decision. In the return process, he/she organises formalized contacts to discuss return. This caseworker system is considered a factor that has positively affected the voluntariness of departure from Sweden.
  • Practice
  • Case Management
  • Case resolution
  • Asylum seekers
  • All
  • Guardianship arrangements for undocumented arrivals
  • Netherlands
  • Nidos is an organization commissioned by the Dutch authorities to be temporary guardians to unaccompanied minors who are refugees, asylum seekers or other migrants for whom return to their homelands is a realistic option. The organization employs social workers with specific expertise working with children cross culturally. Nidos is responsible for the minor’s reception, although the daily education and care is sourced to third parties under the supervision of the guardians. The ‘guardian is expected to focus on the promotion of the child’s best interests, his/ her education, care and protection and the prevention of abuse, disappearances and an existence in illegality.’
  • Policy
  • Case Management
  • Case management and support
  • Migrants
  • Children
  • Unaccompanied and Separated Children
  • Guardianship arrangements
  • Belgium
  • Guardians in Belgium are entirely unrelated to immigration authorities. They are also independent from, but monitored by, the body charged with their administration, Guardianship Services. Where a conflict arises between a guardian and the Guardianship Services, courts determine whether or not another guardian should be appointed. The guardian’s role, taking the child’s view into account, is:
    ‘To ensure the well-being of the child (which includes education, mental and physical health).
    To build a relationship of trust with the child.
    To help him/her with his/her asylum application and be present at every hearing/interview.
    To appoint a lawyer for the child and also find him/her accommodation.
    To assist the child in family tracing.
    To seek a durable solution for him/her.
    To explain the decisions and ensure the child understands all processes, manage his/her finances and provide reports on the child.’
  • Policy
  • Case Management
  • Case management and support
  • Migrants
  • Children
  • Unaccompanied and Separated Children
  • Community Assistance Scheme
  • Australia
  • Immigration advice and application assistance to vulnerable people, delivered by providers under the Immigration Advice and Application Assistance Scheme (IAAAS).
- Information and counselling services, provided by the International Organization for Migration (IOM). The IOM provides information on immigration processes and assistance to people and prepares them for their immigration outcome. Case managers are responsible for overseeing the case, meeting regularly with their clients and coordinating case conferences with client and service providers at critical incidents, such as a refusal or change of circumstance. Of the 918 people initially assisted, 560 (61%) had a final immigration outcome. Of this group 370 people (66%) received a temporary or permanent visa to remain, 114 people (20%) voluntarily departed,
37 people (7%) absconded, 33 people (6%) were removed and 6 people (1%) died. These figures show that 93% of people complied with their reporting and other obligations and that 60% of those not granted a visa to remain in the country voluntarily departed.
  • Policy
  • Case Management
  • Case management and support
  • Migrants
  • All
  • Pre-Removal processes for refused asylum seekers in Canada
  • Canada
  • Although not specifically designed to address the needs of children, asylum seekers whose cases have been rejected and who are expected to depart Canada can apply for protection under the Pre-Removal Risk Assessment process. This process takes into consideration a change in circumstances in asylum seekers’ countries of origin, new information demonstrating that asylum seekers will be at risk of persecution, torture or to cruel, inhuman or unusual treatment or punishment, or the possibility that asylum seekers’ lives may be otherwise endangered should they be compelled to leave Canada. The PRRA is not an appeal against earlier decisions and consideration is given only to new information or evidence. The PRRA decision is usually made on the papers. Only a very small percentage of applicants are granted the right to remain in Canada under the PRRA.
  • Practice
  • Case Management
  • Case resolution
  • Returnees / Deportees
  • All